TAK1 suppresses RIPK1-dependent cell death and is associated with disease progression in melanoma
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Cell Death & Differentiation (März 2019)

Melanoma cells are highly resistant to conventional genotoxic agents, and BRAFV600/MEK-targeted therapies as well as immunotherapies frequently remain inefficient. Alternative means to treat melanoma, in particular through the induction of programmed cell death modalities such as apoptosis or necroptosis, therefore still need to be explored. Here, we report that melanoma cell lines expressing notable amounts of RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL, the key players of necroptosis signal transduction, fail to execute necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, the activity of transforming growth factor $\beta$-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) appears to prevent RIPK1 from contributing to cell death induction, since TAK1 inhibition by (5Z)-7-Oxozeaenol, deletion of MAP3K7 or the expression of inactive TAK1 were sufficient to sensitize melanoma cells to RIPK1-dependent cell death in response to TNF$\alpha$ or TRAIL based combination treatments. However, cell death was executed exclusively by apoptosis, even when RIPK3 expression was high. In addition, TAK1 inhibitor (5Z)-7-Oxozeaenol suppressed intrinsic or treatment-induced pro-survival signaling as well as the secretion of cytokines and soluble factors associated with melanoma disease progression. Correspondingly, elevated expression of TAK1 correlates with reduced disease free survival in patients diagnosed with primary melanoma. Overall, our results therefore demonstrate that TAK1 suppresses the susceptibility to RIPK1-dependent cell death and that high expression of TAK1 indicates an increased risk for disease progression in melanoma.
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