Synthesis of Cembranoid Analogues through Ring-Closing Metathesis of Terpenoid Precursors: A Challenge Regarding Ring-Size Selectivity
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Chem. - A Eur. J. 21 (35): 12396–12404 (2015)

Together with 106 farmers who started growing Jatropha (Jatropha curcas$\backslash$nL.) in 20042006, this research sought to increase the knowledge around$\backslash$nthe real-life experience of Jatropha farming in the southern India$\backslash$nstates of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Launched as an alternative for$\backslash$ndiesel in India, Jatropha has been promoted as a non-edible plant that$\backslash$ncould grow on poor soils, yield oil-rich seeds for production of$\backslash$nbio-diesel, and not compete directly with food production. Through$\backslash$ninterviews with the farmers, information was gathered regarding their$\backslash$nsocio-economic situation, the implementation and performance of their$\backslash$nJatropha plantations, and their reasons for continuing or discontinuing$\backslash$nJatropha cultivation. Results reveal that 82\% of the farmers had$\backslash$nsubstituted former cropland for their Jatropha cultivation. By 2010,$\backslash$n85\% (n = 90) of the farmers who cultivated Jatropha in 2004 had$\backslash$nstopped. Cultivating the crop did not give the economic returns the$\backslash$nfarmers anticipated, mainly due to a lack of information about the crop$\backslash$nand its maintenance during cultivation and due to water scarcity. A$\backslash$nmajority of the farmers irrigated and applied fertilizer, and even$\backslash$npesticides. Many problems experienced by the farmers were due to limited$\backslash$nknowledge about cultivating Jatropha caused by poor planning and$\backslash$nimplementation of the national Jatropha program. Extension services,$\backslash$nsubsidies, and other support were not provided as promised. The farmers$\backslash$nwho continued cultivation had means of income other than Jatropha and$\backslash$nheld hopes of a future Jatropha market. The lack of market structures,$\backslash$nsuch as purchase agreements and buyers, as well as a low retail price$\backslash$nfor the seeds, were frequently stated as barriers to Jatropha$\backslash$ncultivation. For Jatropha biodiesel to perform well, efforts are needed$\backslash$nto improve yield levels and stability through genetic improvements and$\backslash$ndrought tolerance, as well as agriculture extension services to support$\backslash$nadoption of the crop. Government programs will -probably be more$\backslash$neffective if implementing biodiesel production is conjoined with$\backslash$nstimulating the demand for Jatropha biodiesel. To avoid food-biofuel$\backslash$ncompetition, additional measures may be needed such as land-use$\backslash$nrestrictions for Jatropha producers and taxes on biofuels or biofuel$\backslash$nfeedstocks to improve the competitiveness of the food sector compared to$\backslash$nthe bioenergy sector. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry and John$\backslash$nWiley & Sons, Ltd
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