Maximum likelihood analysis is a powerful technique for inferring evolutionary histories from genetic sequence data. During the fall of 2003, an international team of computer scientists, biologists, and computer centers created a global grid to analyze the evolution of hexapods (arthropods with six legs). We created a global grid of computers using systems located in eight countries, spread across six continents (every continent but Antarctica). This work was done as part of the SC03 HPC challenge, and this project was given an HPC challenge award for the "most distributed application". More importantly, the creation of this computing grid enabled investigation of important questions regarding the evolution of arthropods - research that would not have otherwise been undertaken. Grid computing thus leads directly to new scientific insights.